A recent local auction brought some artefacts with a Kings Weston connection to our attention. As many people will know the present Kings Weston house was preceded by an older mansion, one swept away in 1711 ahead of reconstruction to the designs of Sir John Vanbrugh starting the following year. This earlier house appears to have been built by Sir William Wyntour.
Queen Elizabeth I appointed Sir William Vice-Admiral of England, the second most powerful position in the Royal Navy, and was succeeded in that position by Sir Francis Drake. Sir William was knighted by the Queen in 1573 and was pivotal in the repelling of the Spanish Armada in 1588. In 1561 William had purchased the manor of Lydney in Gloucestershire, on the north side of the Severn, and rebuilt the house there. He accumulated other Gloucestershire lands, and in 1570 bought the Kings Weston estate; As at Lydney it’s likely that he erected a grand new mansion here shortly afterwards. The recently rediscovered artifacts appear to be fragments of that house.
Eight decorated stone fragments make up the collection of stonework. Several can be identified as parts of decorative fireplace surrounds, one is a section of a mullion window, and there are a pair of carved stone heads. Two portions of stone have been reconstructed into a tall heraldic lion, though now heavily defaced. The lion retains an odd lead insert that might have been a lance or banner that it’d once clasped in its paws. The heads are badly weather-beaten and have been exposed to the elements longer than the other fragments, though they are still recognisable as that of two men; one with a beard and one clean shaven.
When the collection came to auction it was described as “reputedly” from Kings Weston, though the circumstances of their discovery have since been established more accurately. The fragments were discovered in a boundary wall, on the “west side of Kingsweston Hill” by local amateur antiquarian Antony Scammel. Scammel was a well-known collector of historic artefacts and coins, and recorded the find in writing on the back of a print showing the old house that also formed part of the auction lot. He recovered the stones in 1967, but aside from the rough identification of the find spot we are still unsure of the exact location.
What we can tell from the stones is their rough date, from the style of the designs, and that they were deliberately broken up to use as building stone. Stylistically they accord with having been part of Sir William’s Tudor mansion, and the quality of the design and execution shows that they were from a high status building. Certainly a heraldic lion gate finial or roof ornament would most likely be found on a house of Kings Weston’s size and quality rather than a smaller house in the same vicinity. We must take Mr Scammel’s assessment that the wall in which they were found was Eighteenth Century on face value, but this would tie in well with the documented demolition date of the old building. Mr Scammel’s attribution of the sculpted heads as Sir William Wyntour and his son can be less certain.
A major new addition has been made to our website recently. You can now browse a collection of over 100 historic postcard images from across the Kings Weston estate.
In the early decades of the Twentieth Century postcards could be sent between towns in a matter of hours, with several deliveries a day; they were the text messages of their era. The collection dates mainly to the years before the First World War, before the telephone became the quickest way to communicate. The picturesque Kings Weston estate offered photographers great opportunities for to produce popular views for cards, and they seized on Penpole Point, the Iron Bridge, and the lily pond for their chocolate-box qualities. After the First World War postcards began a slow decline. Amongst the collection are a few representing the inter-war period, but only a couple from after WWII.
Views around Kings Weston house itself are relatively rare. It may have been the retiring character of Philip Napier Miles that saw him reluctant to see his home recorded in popular postcards. But a significant number that do record the house stem from the period it was used as an auxiliary Hospital during the Great War; perhaps the cards were sold in aid of Red Cross charities that Miles keenly supported. These were published by S E Robinson who ran the Post Office in Shirehampton and record many of the wounded servicemen who were sent to Kings Weston to recuperate.
S E Robinson is again well represented amongst cards of Penpole Point that appear to have been a keen obsession of postcard photographers, with the spectacular views across the Severn of particular note. Sadly these views have gone; along with nearby Penpole Lodge that’s another frequent feature of cards. Spectacular views also attracted photographers to the southern part of the estate, on Shirehampton Park, where the impressive panoramas above horseshoe bend were a popular retreat for locals. As unlikely as it sounds the driving of the Portway through the same pastoral scene didn’t diminish its interest for postcard views. Perhaps it was the marvelous feat engineering that attracted purchasers of these views, many of which feature the new carriageway as much as the views beyond it.
These postcards are an important visual and social record of the times. Many have been written and sent, and occasionally you will find interesting snippets about the estate. One written from Kings Weston house and sent in 1906 is from an unnamed young lady who wrote “This is just a view of the house, but I am living at my mother’s. I have exactly the same work to do here as I did at the Castle, the housework. Instead of this I wish myself at home. Tell Jack I wish I never saw the place.”
Last month we shared some photos and memories of David Pickering whose uncle, Fred Whapshare. Since then David has very generously donated a number of historic items with Kings Weston connections to KWAG.
Central to the small collection is a beautiful box veneered in beautiful Coromandel wood, with robust but elegant brass edges and handles. During the reign of Queen Victoria, Coromandel was considered one of the most exotic, luxurious and expensive woods to work with and it was the veneer of choice for some of the finest boxes. It’s of little surprise that such a fine wood was selected for use on a possession of the Miles family who lived at Kings Weston between 1834 and 1935. In the top a rebated brass plaque has the initials HCWM joins the arm-and-anchor arms of the family; from this we can attribute the box’s ownership of Henry Cruger Miles, widely known as Cruger.
He lived with his brother, Philip William Skinner Miles, at Kings Weston for much of his life. He never married, but was a highly regarded in Bristol, being High Sheriff of the City, a Master of the Merchant Ventures, and the principle supporter of the rebuilding of the Cathedral nave. On his death in 1888 he bequeathed all his possessions to the only heir, his nephew Philip Napier Miles, amongst which we assume was this case.
It’s designed as a travelling case, with handles, a robust but elegant exterior, and an interior fitted out with compartments, a silk lining, and a detachable mirror. Some of the original contents are happily still contained. A cut-throat razor and a silver travelling shaving brush are, sadly, the only survivors, but enough to be able to date the box to 1874 from the hallmarks.
Now housed in the box are a partial set of gilt livery buttons carrying the Miles family arms. These, Mr Pickering tells us, were dug from the garden of a cottage on Kings Weston Lane that his Uncle and Aunt lived in until after WWII. Perhaps they were stripped from an old uniform and discarded when new clothes were procured.
Another item with a direct Kings Weston connection is an engraved copper printing plate. On this, written backwards, is an invite to dinner with Mr and Mrs Napier Miles at Kings Weston, with the details of the invitee and time to be filled in by hand when the plate was used to print invitations. It must date to after Napier Miles married in 1899 and his death in 1935, but it’s not possible to narrow down dates further.
The last item is a more palpable link to My Pickering’s own family connection. A pair of secateurs was owned by his uncle in his role as head gardener at Kings Weston. We shared a photo of Fred Whapshare in our last newsletter and the garden tool was his, and shared with Napier Miles when the latter borrowed them, on occasion taking them to use at his Italian villa at Allassio.
We’re incredibly grateful to Mr Pickering for the kind gift of these items, that will now form part of our growing collection of books, images, and artefacts with Kings Weston connections.
We were contacted recently by David Pickering who has a family connecting to Kings Weston and still lives nearby. He’s kindly send us some historic images to publish in our newsletter and we’re grateful to him for adding to our understanding of the estate’s history.
One of the photos is of his uncle Fred Whapshare posed, probably in the 1920s, in front of the stone gate-piers at the back of the house, one of which still stands. Mr Pickering writes that his uncle “ worked on the estate most of his life, as a gardener ,being born in about 1893. His wife worked as a housemaid there, and they were left in charge as custodians when the house was closed up before the old lady (Sybil, Philip Napier Miles’ wife) moved to the House in the Garden. They eventually bought the attached-row of Hawksmoor cottages in the lane, before one day selling up and building the bungalow ‘Wingrove’ in some of their garden.”
He continues “My uncle carried on as gardener when Mrs Miles moved to the House in the Garden, and I have fond memories of being taken round the place as a child, being given my first-ever peach from a hot-house wall. Really I have always felt that the estate was part of my own background. My Aunt and Uncle were devoted to the place, and worked there most of their lives. Some entertaining stories of staff parties, with exuberant footmen!”
When, in 1937, the contents of the house were auctioned, after the death of Philip Napier Miles, Mrs Whapshare bought a few keepsakes. These included some paintings and etchings of Italy done by the Miles’s brother in law, the artist Robert Goff. Goff regularly joined the Miles’s at their villa on the Italian coast and they shared a love of the country. Also amongst Goff’s works Mrs Whapshare bought was this painting of Kings Weston, dated 5th September 1911, and looking across Shirehampton Park. The haystacks in the middle distance are at the bottom of Longcombe, now on the golf course, and the present location of a utilitarian steel shed, but the focus of the painting appears to be the twisted red pine tree, a feature that appears in many of Goff’s other works.
Last October volunteers from KWAG, along with families from around the estate, came up for our 7th annual Big Bulb Plant. Our target was to plant over 8000 daffodil bulbs on The Centre. This are was the historic heart of the landscaped parkland, and remains the focus of the paths and avenues crossing the estate today.
The October event was our most popular yet, and the bulbs have now burst to life in dramatic fashion! The whole are is now richly golden with a dense field of flowers and are proving quite an attraction. The daffodils can be seen far across the park, appearing in views up the main avenues, from the lawns around the house, and from the path from the public car park on Shirehampton Road.
It’s difficult to imagine that just a few years ago this same area was a deep jungle 8 feet deep in brambles and hemmed-in with invasive cherry laurel. KWAG volunteers have gradually cleared the area and have been methodically keeping on top of regrowth since then. The flowering of the bulbs marks a huge landmark in reversing the tide of neglect and enhancing the parkland.
One of the most recognisable features of Kings Weston house is its roof; the castellated arcade on the top was designed to look like a fortification from a distance, and the open arches encircled a lookout platform from where visitors could admire the views across the Severn and beyond; but there’s much more up there of interest.
Although begun in 1712 the house was largely finished by 1716, enough for the rooms to be furnished and Edward Southwell to be able to move in with his second wife. However work continued on various aspects of the house; The veneered decoration on the stairs was made in 1719, the traditional completion date for the house, whilst the rooftop was the focus of continuing decorative masonry work. In the Kings Weston Book of Drawings, preserved in in Bristol Archives, there is a design for an urn intended to sit on the parapets on all four sides of the building. In total there are eight individual urns, massive stone structures that appear deceptively small when viewed from the ground; in fact they are each seven feet tall! There are three individual styles of urns, and the historical drawing illustrates the design for the pair on the “back front” of the house overlooking the service courtyard. The drawing’s dated 1717 and is one of the contract drawings given to the builders to work up, for which they would charge just four pounds ten shillings for the pair!
The roof itself is covered in tons of heavy cast lead sheet, some of which appears to have been on the building since it was finished, but certainly most was in place after mid-Eighteenth Century alterations. The lead itself has become something of an historical document since it was first laid; there are literally dozens of graffiti signatures and marks made by visitors to the roof over the centuries. Some are simple initials indented into the soft lead surface, others are full names, and some dated. Most are made by taking an iron tool and joggling it across the surface of the metal, giving a distinctive line almost as if it were embroidered. Others are gouged directly into the surface, but this method must have been more difficult to undertake and control.
The earliest found so far is the most illuminating; dated 1789 it’s signed T Cox who was bold enough to also identify himself as an estate game keeper. Although we have a number of named gamekeepers from the house Mr Cox’s rooftop signature is perhaps his only memorial as we can find nothing more about the man.
Robert Edward signed the leadwork in 1834. This
may have been a time at which the house was empty, awaiting the new residents,
the Miles family, to take occupation after the Southwell family had died out in
1832. Edward, apparently proud of his work, adds the Latin ‘pinxit’, declaring
he himself was responsible for the mark. N Cox was perhaps his companion on
this visit as he too adopts the Latin elaboration, and goes further in adding a
little cartouche about his name; was he related to Mr Cox the gamekeeper?
The most fascinating marks are those drawn around shoes or hands, of which there are several. Sadly only one of these is signed and it’s tempting to conclude that these men were illiterate, able only to make their mark by pictogram. The shoes, al of which are very small sizes, are distinctive shapes, with rounded heels and chisel-ended toes; does anyone know how these could be dated? The artists have embellished their outlines with the boot-nails and reinforced iron heels marked on. The hand is perhaps the most enigmatic. Only a single left hand has been discovered, it’s author no doubt using his right hand to draw around it with a steel tool.
In 1868 a fierce political fight broke out between Conservative and
Liberal supporters each eagerly supporting their candidates in the city’s
by-election. This was an age where electioneering could generate bitter
personal attacks and even physical violence and the 1868 election was amongst
the most divisive.
Standing as the Conservative Party candidate was John William Miles, brother of
Philip William Skinner Miles of Kings Weston House and resident there for much
of his life. The Miles family bought Kings Weston in 1834 after Lord de
Clifford had died in 1832 without an heir. John Miles’ brother, and
his father before him, had both represented the city for an unbroken period
between 1835 and 1852. John Miles no doubt wanted to continue the family’s
Like the other members of his family John Miles was keenly and actively involved in the industrial development of the city, but also worked tirelessly in modernising the farms at Kings Weston. He was director, at one time vice-chairman, of the Great Western Railway, a director of the Great Western Cotton Company, South Wales Union railway, and director of the Great Western Steamship Co; the SS Great Britain was registered in is co-ownership. He had been a member of the Bristol Docks committee and on the city’s council. He was a well-respected member of the mercantile class of the city, and would have made a popular choice to follow in his family’s political footsteps.
Against Miles the Liberals selected Samuel Morley, who today is best known for his statue in gardens in Lewins Mead. Campaigning was frenetic, with both parties producing handbills and posters both promoting their own candidate and demeaning the opposition. Miles handbills, many now in the collections of Bristol Museum, promoted him as a positive vote for industry and prosperity with images of shipping and the railways with which he was associated being popular motifs.
Several also carried images of the man taken from a contemporary engraving from which we could infer he was a stocky joyless looking gentleman. In reality he was well known for getting involved in family life, participating in theatrical performances, and took pleasure in breeding ferns and orchids; but perhaps the severity of the portrait suggested a man with more gravitas.
His opponents sought votes from the working classes rather than those mercantile or gentry. They noted that the Conservatives had been against broader political representation and, even at this point in time there were only around 25,000 men in the city eligible to vote.
Polling day was 30th April 1868 and Miles attracted 5,173 votes to Morley’s 4,977. Almost immediately after the election results were announced there were claims of foul play. Mr Morley claimed his defeat was due to “an undue use of money, beer, and intimidation”. The House of Commons launched an investigation and, although Miles was inducted into the House, it was only so for less than two months before the result was declared void. The committee charged with investigating the election uncovered the hiring of “roughs” to intimidate voters, with wholesale use of treating to entice votes, and paying ineligible men to impersonate voters. Miles was, through his agents’ actions, found guilty of bribery.
The election was not re-run, instead it was held back for the November General election. There was considerable ill feeling in all camps following the incident and, perhaps foolishly, Miles was fielded as the Conservative candidate again. This time the opposition had a cause and were vociferous in their condemnation of Miles. Numerous damning and sensationalist handbills were published, and the bitterness boiled over into violence and vandalism with damage to property. Unsurprisingly Miles’s vote collapsed and both candidates fielded by the Liberal Party came in ahead of him.
It was a sad end to the political ambitions of the Miles family who had previously been popular and well regarded representatives of their city. The actions of the party agents brought shame on the Miles family and on Kings Weston. John’s two months were the last time any resident of Kings Weston house represented Bristol in the House of Commons. John Miles returned to improving the agricultural progress of the Kings Weston estate, and died at Penpole House ten years later. He never married.
This year Sea
Mills estate celebrates its Centenary. The new suburb was built on land owned
by Philip Napier Miles, and, although not his project, saw the realisation of a
long-held ambition to create a garden village.
clear what first inspired PN Miles to dream of developing his lands on along the
revolutionary principles of the Garden
City Movement, but he was an early adopter. Perhaps he’d read Sir Ebenezer Howard’s ‘To-morrow: a
Peaceful Path to Real Reform’ that set out the ideology of uniting the benefits of open
green space with new urbanization and industry. If he read it in its first year of
publication, in 1898, he was quick to respond as the architectural character of housing around
Avonmouth changed almost overnight, from traditional Victorian terraces, to new
model housing in the Arts and Crafts style still found along Green Lane.
quickly expanded and in March 1903 Miles published his grandiose plans for developing
thousands of acres of land around Avonmouth along Garden City ideals. This was
the same year as the foundation of Letchworth Garden City, the first realised
town plan using the same principles, and the architecture around Avonmouth is
still strongly reminiscent of the more famous settlement.
heavily marketed the Avonmouth city project never really gained traction.
Investors were reluctant to commit to a damp, wet, floodplain that was only poorly
connected to the city centre of Bristol. However the wide streets, and elaborate
Edwardian architecture suggest at the aspirations Miles had.
Avomouth was undergoing tentative development another opportunity arose for
Miles to achieve his ambition; that being the Bristol Garden Suburb Ltd. Miles
was approached in 1909 by promoters of a smaller scale development inspired by the
garden-city principles that would provide pioneering artisan and workers
housing with high quality living conditions and generous gardens front and
back. Miles sold a portion of his estate off Station Road in Shirehampton at
extremely reduced cost to see if the experiment would succeed, and gave the
option to acquire more land if it was a success. The project was realised and
although only 44 houses had been built by 1913 it remained incomplete. Today
the garden village can best be seen around Passage Leaze where it has been
surrounded with later council estate development that muddies its real significance.
remained committed to developing a much larger garden suburb on his own terms
and, in 1918 a new plan was formed to develop 350 acres of the Kings Weston
estate below Penpole Wood and where Lawrence Weston is today; 60 acres of this
were scheduled to be open green space. A 1919 newspaper report describes the
visit of the Garden Cities and Town Planning Association when Miles took the
opportunity to describe his plans and the progress then being made on them. The
first public building was to be a Trades Hall for the use of trade unionists,
new education facilities, communal laundries, baths, swimming pools a main
avenue of two miles in length, and a shopping centre were to incorporate
elements of the landscaped parkland below Kings Weston house.
aren’t any surviving plans for Miles’s ambitious scheme, but part of it was
realised in the form of about 100 houses below Penpole Point, around Bean Acre
and the western ends of Old Quarry Road and Kings Weston Aveunue; the latter being
the commencement of the 2-mile long avenue planned. The works were undertaken
by the Ministry of Munitions and it appears that Miles had limited control of
the appearance of their work driven by the wartime need to supply workers
housing for the Government zinc smelting works and the Mustard Gas factory at
known why the Kings Weston Garden City faltered after such grand plans,
especially following the 1919 Housing and Town Planning Act, promoted by politician
and doctor Christopher Addison, gave Local Authorities the power and money to
act to help resolve a chronic housing shortage. Instead Bristol Corporation focussed
attention on another large tract of Miles’s estate: Sea Mills. Miles bought
into the idea and he happily negotiated with the Council to sell the 205 Acres
of land required, but with three clear provisos that ensured he retained considerable
control of the design. These were: 1. “that no part of the said lands…shall
be used for any purpose other than that of a Garden Suburb”; 2. that the
density “shall amount on an average to not less than 8 and not more than 12 per
acre; 3. “that the said lands…shall be laid out and built upon in accordance
with a scheme which shall be previously prepared in consultation with the
Surveyor and Architect employed by the Vendor”.
In June 1919 the
architect of the social reforms that had enabled the foundation of Sea Mills,
Christopher Addison himself, cut the
first sod on Sea Mills Square and symbolically planted the ‘Addison’s Oak’. The
plans closely followed the Garden City principles, applied to a suburb, ensuring
generous green spaces, civic, educational and social buildings planned as a
unified and integrated whole. Miles further augmented the new suburb with the
gift of open spaces, and the donation of Shirehampton Park to the National
Trust for the enjoyment and recreation of the new residents.
In this Centenary year for Sea Mills it should not be underestimated the vision of men and women to provide humane, healthy, and dignified for their fellows. Amongst those people we should remember Philip Napier Miles and his devotion to the Garden City ideals; Sea Mills Garden Suburb must have given him pleasure as the most complete realisation of the dream he harboured for two decades.
The Centenary of Sea Mills is being celebrated by the Sea Mills 100 project with a series of events throughout the year, and the launch of a micro museum in a restored telephone box in the village centre. More information can be found here. For more information on Sea Mills suburb the Conservation Area Statement provides more detail.
Two items of Kings Weston interest recently appeared in
auction in Gloucestershire. Two paintings, both dating to the 1840s went under
the hammer on the 7th. The first was a small and somewhat naive
depiction of Penpole Point in oil. This small painting was unsigned and a
little mangled. The view included Penpole Lodge and the dial further along the
ridge, but all concertinaed into a compressed space with some alarming perspective
at play! It was also odd in showing the dial raised on a mound, perhaps for
artistic effect as we know it never had this pronounced feature. The painting shows some of the many visitors
who came to Penpole Point to take in the views; one even holds a telescope to
out on the early steamships plying their
trade on the Severn.
The other painting is a large watercolour depicting the
staircase in Kings Weston house by Thomas Leeson Rowbotham and is of historic
as well as aesthetic interest. Rowbotham (1782-1853) was born in Bath in 1782
where he worked as a teacher of painting. He lived in Bristol from about
1825-35, where he made many drawings for G. W. Braikenridge who famously
commissioned hundreds of paintings documenting the old city of Bristol in incredible
detail. Over 400 of Rowbothom’s paintings form part of the museum’s
Braikenridge collection. Rowbothom must have impressed the Miles family, owners
of Kings Weston from 1835, as he was commissioned to paint the interior of both
his mansions: Leigh Court and Kings Weston. A painting of the Drawing Room at
Leigh Court is in the Bristol Museum collections.
The Kings Weston painting is dated, June 1948, and this too is significant. After the death in 1845 of his father, Philip John Miles, his son, Philip William Skinner Miles decided to use his inheritance to refurbish Kings Weston as his new family home. Part of his works were to demolish the ancient arcades that filled the stair hall of the house and open up the space with wide galleries and a new top-lit ceiling. The centrepiece of the space was to remain the original staircase designed by Sir John Vanbrugh and installed by 1716. This work began in 1846 and concluded with a ceremonial dinner for the labourers on August 21st 1847; this was held in the George in Shirehampton and not in the house itself!
Skinner Miles appears to have commissioned Rowbothom to
record the brand new interior he has just created. Everything looks neat with
only a few belongings having yet been set up and paintings and furniture that
later occupied the space not yet installed. The gas lamps fitted to the stair
newels are feature now missing, but the scene is little changed today from
Rowbothom’s meticulous depiction of the newly finished hall.
Last month we brought you some First World War images from the archives of Avon and Somerset Constabulary, but there are many other interesting finds in their collection. This month we reveal some alarming images of the Georgian stables on Napier Miles Road. The stables were built in the late 1760s by the architect Robert Mylne shortly after his return from study in Rome. It was perhaps here that he had come into contact with the young Edward Southwell III of Kings Weston who would give him this prize commission before allowing him free-reign in remodelling the interiors of the house itself.
The stables and carriage houses continued to perform their original function until 1935 when the last private owner of the house, Philip Napier Miles died. His widow retained the walled gardens, where she built a new house for herself, and the stables, but the latter structures fared badly during the Second World War when they were used as billets for British soldiers employed in the house.
By 1952 the building was ruinous, its roofs collapsing, and under threat of demolition. It was only through the efforts of local conservationists and the strong advocacy of Lord Methuen that the City Council conceded to keep the building and rebuild it as a new police station to serve the fast-growing Lawrence Weston estate below. What has not been clear until now was the extremes that the ‘restoration’ had gone to in rebuilding the structure for this new use.
These photos show how much of structure was dismantled before being put back together. Remarkably only the central arch and the end facades of the two wings to the road appear to be the only elements that survived unscathed. The whole of the rest of the building has been taken down and, presumably, the most important masonry carefully numbered for later restoration.
The building was formerly opened as a police station in May 1962 by the Lord Mayor, local MPs and numerous local dignitaries. Lord Methuen also attended and expressed his complements to the City Corporation on the vision and foresight they had shown in putting the buildings to their new use. He said” I remember when nothing seemed to move anyone to preserve the place and that is why I am so pleased to be present among those who saw the possibilities of not only retaining the buildings, but putting them to such a practical use” . He continued that in most places these days there was a curious view that one should regard historic places on the basis of whether or not they could bring an income, but here was a refreshing change. He hoped Bristol would now consider preserving some more of her architectural heritage for posterity.